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0001466538--12-312019FYfalse112,45157,5836505162,6201,569721472114,504124,74132,84631,63026,39538,0930.010.0110,000,00010,000,000120,750120,750120,750120,750120,750,000120,750,00018,605,58115,336,8710.010.0162,500,00062,500,00047,215,93843,774,37128,610,35728,437,860216,912253,7720.010.0162,500,00062,500,000fourP5YP4YP5Y1520.520.21P5Y.25P90DP30Doneone4.886.252.259.380.2809,8558.9472,404811.2510.481486.576.756.576.759.7511.2510.56.576.752020132.3152215212323171730676.1797.8354035354035202020207.37.47.01.31.62.24,10013.156.12.632141.2583108.08.5P2YP5YP2YP5YP4Y000068.9933.92.263.16.519.041.2258.4224.5258.456000006.730.36.5125,000,00062,500,0000.0162,500,0000.0110,000,0000.01210,000,000Economic Income (Loss) presents underwriting expenses net of investment banking revenues, expenses reimbursed from clients within their respective expense category. Economic Income (Loss) also records retainer fees, relating to investment banking activities, collectible during the period that would otherwise be deferred until closing for US GAAP reporting. Economic Income (Loss) brokerage revenues included net securities borrowed and securities loaned activities which are shown gross in interest income and interest expense for US GAAP. Economic Income (Loss) recognizes revenues (i) net of fund start-up costs and distribution fees paid to agents, (ii) records income from uncrystallized incentive fees and (iii) the Company's proportionate share of management and incentive fees of certain real estate operating entities, the healthcare royalty business and the activist business.Economic Income (Loss) recognizes Company income from proprietary trading (including interest and dividends ) for which the majority of this activity is shown in other income (loss) for US GAAP reporting.Reimbursement from affiliates is shown as a reduction of Economic Income expenses, but is included as a part of revenues under US GAAP. Economic Income (Loss) recognizes underwriting income from the Company's insurance related activities, net of expenses, within other revenue. The costs are recorded within expenses for US GAAP reporting.Aircraft lease revenue is shown net of expenses in investment income for Economic Income (Loss). Economic Income (Loss) excludes income taxes and acquisition related adjustments as management does not consider these items when evaluating the performance of the segment. Economic Income (Loss) recognizes the Company's proportionate share of expenses, for certain real estate operating entities and the activist business, for which the investments are recorded under the equity method of accounting for investments.Economic Income (Loss) excludes gain/(loss) on debt extinguishment.Economic Income (Loss) excludes the bargain purchase gain which resulted from the Convergex Group 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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended:  December 31, 2019
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to

Commission file number:001-34516
Cowen Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 27-0423711
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
599 Lexington Avenue
New York, New York 10022
(212845-7900
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant's principal executive office)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class Trading SymbolName of Exchange on Which Registered
Class A Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share COWNThe Nasdaq Global Market
7.35% Senior Notes due 2027COWNZThe Nasdaq Global Market
7.75% Senior Notes due 2033COWNLThe Nasdaq Global Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filer
(Do not check if a smaller
reporting company)
Smaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes     No 
The aggregate market value of Class A common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant on June 30, 2019, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, based upon the closing sale price of the Class A common stock on the NASDAQ Global Market on that date was $488,181,217.
As of March 3, 2020 there were 28,656,136 shares of the registrant's Class A common stock outstanding.
Documents incorporated by reference:
Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K incorporates by reference information (to the extent specific sections are referred to herein) from the Registrant's Proxy Statement for its 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.




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Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
We have included or incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K (the "Annual Report"), and from time to time may make in our public filings, press releases or other public documents, certain statements, including (without limitation) those under Item 1—"Business," Item 1A—"Risk Factors," Item 3—"Legal Proceedings," Item 7—"Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and Item 7A—"Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk" that may constitute "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. In some cases, you can identify these statements by forward-looking terms such as "may," "might," "will," "would," "could," "should," "expect," "plan," "anticipate," "believe," "estimate," "predict," "project," "possible," "potential," "intend," "seek" or "continue," the negative of these terms and other comparable terminology or similar expressions. In addition, our management may make forward-looking statements to analysts, representatives of the media and others. These forward-looking statements represent only the Company's beliefs regarding future events (many of which, by their nature, are inherently uncertain and beyond our control) and are predictions only, based on our current expectations and projections about future events. There are important factors that could cause our actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. In particular, you should consider the risks outlined under Item 1A—"Risk Factors" in this Annual Report.
Although we believe the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, level of activity, performance or achievements. Moreover, neither we nor any other person assumes responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of any of these forward-looking statements. You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We undertake no obligation to update any of these forward-looking statements after the date of this filing to conform our prior statements to actual results or revised expectations.


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PART I
When we use the terms "we," "us," "Cowen" and the "Company," we mean Cowen Inc., a Delaware corporation, its consolidated subsidiaries and entities in which it has a controlling financial interest, taken as a whole, as well as any predecessor entities, unless the context otherwise indicates.
Item 1.    Business
Overview
Cowen Inc., a Delaware corporation formed in 2009, is a diversified financial services firm that, together with its consolidated subsidiaries (collectively, "Cowen" or the "Company"), provides investment banking, research, sales and trading, prime brokerage, global clearing and commission management services and investment management through its two business segments: the Operating Company ("Op Co") and the Asset Company ("Asset Co").
Operating Company
The Op Co segment consists of four divisions: the Cowen Investment Management ("CIM") division, the Investment Banking division, the Markets division and the Research division. The Company refers to the Investment Banking division, the Markets division and the Research division collectively as its investment banking businesses. Op Co's CIM division includes advisers to investment funds (including private equity structures and privately placed hedge funds), and registered funds. Op Co's investment banking businesses offer industry focused investment banking for growth-oriented companies including advisory and global capital markets origination and domain knowledge-driven research, sales and trading platforms for institutional investors, global clearing and commission management services and also a comprehensive suite of prime brokerage services.
The CIM division is the Company's investment management business, which operates primarily under the Cowen Investment Management name. CIM offers innovative investment products and solutions across the liquidity spectrum to institutional and private clients. The predecessor to this business was founded in 1994 and, through one of its subsidiaries, has been registered with the United States ("U.S.") Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") as an investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended (the "Advisers Act") since 1997. The Company's investment management business offers investors access to a number of strategies to meet their specific needs including private healthcare investing, private sustainable investing, healthcare royalties, activism and merger arbitrage. A portion of the Company’s capital is invested alongside the Company's investment management clients. The Company has also invested some of its capital in its reinsurance businesses.
Op Co's investment banking businesses include investment banking, research, sales and trading, prime brokerage, global clearing and commission management services provided primarily to companies and institutional investor clients. Sectors covered by Op Co's investment banking business include healthcare, technology, media and telecommunications, consumer, industrials, information and technology services, and energy. We provide research and brokerage services to over 6,000 domestic and international clients seeking to trade securities and other financial instruments, principally in our sectors. The investment banking businesses also offer a full-service suite of introduced prime brokerage services targeting emerging private fund managers. Historically, we have focused our investment banking efforts on small to mid-capitalization public companies as well as private companies. From time to time, the Company invests in private capital raising transactions of its investment banking clients.
Asset Company
The Asset Co segment consists of the Company's private investments, private real estate investments and other legacy investment strategies. The focus of Asset Co is to drive future monetization of the invested capital of the segment.
Change in Segments
The Company continually monitors and reviews its segment reporting structure in accordance with authoritative guidance to determine whether any changes have occurred that would impact its reportable segments. Because of the change in the Chief Operating Decision Maker ("CODM") of the Company at the end of 2017, the Company experienced a strategic shift to refocus the Company's businesses on a set of differentiated products which are aligned to the content and insight within the Company's domain of expertise.
During the second quarter of 2019, the Company realigned the business and reportable segment information that the CODM regularly reviews to evaluate performance for operating decision-making purposes, including evaluation and allocation of resources.  As a result, the Company changed its segment reporting structure based on the Company's domain expertise as a driver of balance sheet harmonization and repeatable revenues for its operating business versus the Company's long-term monetization strategies.
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As a result of the change in segments during the second quarter of 2019, the Company has the following business segments:
The Op Co segment consists of four divisions: Investment Banking, Markets, Research and Cowen Investment Management. Each of Op Co's four divisions leverage the Research division’s core domain expertise to drive harmonized repeatable revenue for the segment.
The Investment Banking division includes public and private capital raising transactions and providing strategic advisory services.
The Markets division includes trading equity, equity-linked and fixed income securities on behalf of institutional investors as well as a full-service suite of prime brokerage services, cross-asset trading, securities finance, global execution, clearing and commission management businesses.
The Research division provides thought leadership and domain expertise. The research content that is created helps to facilitate brokerage revenue in the Markets division, provides research coverage for clients of the Investment Banking division and facilitate investor relationships and investing within CIM's innovative investment products and solutions.
The CIM division offers innovative investment products and solutions across the liquidity spectrum to institutional and private clients. CIM offers investors access to a number of strategies to meet their specific needs including merger arbitrage, activism, healthcare royalties, private healthcare investing and private sustainable investing many of which leverage the content and domain expertise that are aligned with the Company's core areas of expertise, which the Company refers to as Cowen DNA.
The Asset Co segment consists of certain of the Company's private investments, private real estate investments and other legacy investment strategies.
Principal Business Lines
Investment Banking
Our investment banking department provides strategic advisory and capital raising services to U.S. and international public and private companies in our sectors. Our strategic advisory services include, among other things, acquisitions, divestitures, fairness opinions, spin-offs, and partnerships. Our capital markets group consists of two groups: (i) equity capital markets (including convertible securities), which focuses on raising equity capital in the public markets, and (ii) private capital solutions, which focuses on providing alternative sources of capital and balance sheet solutions, including private equity, family offices, alternative lenders and liability management. A significant amount of our investment banking revenue has been earned from high-growth small and mid-capitalization companies. From time to time, the Company invests in private capital raising transactions of its clients.
Brokerage
Our team of brokerage professionals serves institutional investor clients in the U.S. and internationally. We trade common stocks, listed options, equity-linked securities and other financial instruments on behalf of our clients and offer a full-service suite of introduced prime brokerage services targeting emerging private fund managers. We provide our clients with an electronic execution suite. We provide global, multi-asset class algorithmic execution trading models to both buy side and sell side clients and also offer execution capabilities relating to these trading models through ATM Execution LLC ("ATM Execution"). We also provide our clients with commentary on political, economic and market conditions. We have relationships with over 6,000 institutional investor clients. Our brokerage team is comprised of experienced professionals dedicated to our sectors, which allows us to develop a level of knowledge and focus that we believe differentiates our brokerage capabilities from those of many of our competitors. We tailor our account coverage to the unique needs of our clients. We believe that our sector traders are able to provide superior execution because of their knowledge of the interests of our institutional investor clients in specific companies in our sectors.
In connection with the brokerage services we provide, our sales professionals also provide our institutional investor clients with corporate access to our investment banking clients outside the context of financing transactions. These meetings are commonly referred to as non-deal road shows. Non-deal road shows allow our investment banking clients to increase their visibility within the institutional investor community while providing our institutional investor clients with the opportunity to further educate themselves on companies and industries through meetings with management. We believe our deep relationships with company management teams and our sector-focused approach provide us with broad access to management for the benefit of our institutional investor and investment banking clients.

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Research
As of December 31, 2019, we had a research team of 52 senior analysts covering over 800 stocks. Within our equity coverage universe, approximately 31% are healthcare companies, 26% are TMT (technology, media and telecom) companies, 14% are energy companies, 11% are capital goods and industrial companies, 3% are basic materials companies and 14% are consumer companies. Our approach to research, underpinned by our marquee Ahead Of The Curve® Series reports, focuses our analysts' efforts toward delivering differentiated investment ideas and de-emphasizes maintenance research. We place significant emphasis on analyst collaboration, both within and between sectors. We sponsor a number of conferences every year that are focused on our sectors and sub-sectors. During these conferences we highlight our investment research and provide significant investor access to corporate management teams. We provide research solely through our broker-dealers in connection with our provision of brokerage services.
Investment Management Strategies
The Company's investment management business, within the Op Co segment, focuses on addressing the needs of institutional investors and high net worth individuals to preserve and grow allocated capital. The Company and its affiliated investment advisors offer a variety of investment management products that provide access to a number of strategies, including merger arbitrage, activism, private healthcare investing, and private sustainable investing.
The Company's investment management business, within the Asset Co segment, consists of the Company's private investments, private real estate investments and other legacy investment strategies. Certain multi-strategy hedge funds managed by the Company are currently in wind-down. The majority of assets remaining in these hedge funds include investments in private companies, real estate investments and special situations.
Information About Geographic Areas
We are principally engaged in providing investment management services to global institutional investors and investment banking sales and trading and research services to corporations and institutional investor clients primarily in the United States and Europe. We provide brokerage services to companies and institutional investor clients in Europe through our broker-dealers located in the United Kingdom ("U.K.") Cowen International Limited ("Cowen International Ltd") and Cowen Execution Services Limited ("Cowen Execution Ltd"). Cowen and Company (Asia) Limited ("Cowen Asia") is registered with and subject to the financial resources requirements of the Securities and Futures Commission ("SFC") of Hong Kong.
Employees
As of March 3, 2020, the Company had 1,325 employees.
Competition
We compete with many other firms in all aspects of our business, including raising funds, seeking investment opportunities and hiring and retaining professionals, and we expect our business will continue to be highly competitive. The investment management and investment banking industries are currently undergoing contraction and consolidation, reducing the number of industry participants and generally resulting in the larger firms being better positioned to retain and gain market share. We compete in the United States and globally for investment opportunities, investor capital, client relationships, reputation and talent. We face competitors that are larger than we are and have greater financial, technical and marketing resources. Certain of these competitors continue to raise additional amounts of capital to pursue investment strategies that may be similar to ours. Some of these competitors may also have access to liquidity sources that are not available to us, which may pose challenges for us with respect to investment opportunities. In addition, some of these competitors may have higher risk tolerances or make different risk assessments than we do, allowing them to consider a wider variety of investments and establish broader networks of business relationships. Our competitive position depends on our reputation, our investment performance and processes, the breadth of our business platform and our ability to continue to attract and retain qualified employees while managing compensation and other costs. For additional information regarding the competitive risks that we face, see "Item 1A Risk Factors".
Regulation and Compliance
Our businesses, as well as the financial services industry generally, are subject to extensive regulation, including periodic examinations by governmental and self-regulatory organizations, in the United States and the jurisdictions in which we operate around the world. As a publicly traded company in the United States, we are subject to the U.S. federal securities laws and regulation by the SEC. Through our investment management and/or investment bank businesses we are subject to regulation by the SEC, the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission ("CFTC"), the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. ("FINRA") the National Futures Association ("NFA"), other self-regulatory organizations and exchanges related to the financial
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services industry and the fifty state securities commissions in the U.S. and by the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority ("FCA") and the SFC of Hong Kong.
Virtually all aspects of our business are subject to various laws and regulations both inside and outside the U.S., some of which are summarized below. Regulatory bodies in the United States and the rest of the world are charged with safeguarding the integrity of the securities and other financial markets and with protecting the interests of customers participating in those markets. Governmental authorities in the United States and in the other countries in which we operate from time to time propose additional disclosure requirements and regulations covering our broker-dealers and investment management businesses. The rules governing the regulation of the various aspects of our business are very detailed and technical. Accordingly, the discussion below is general in nature, does not purport to be complete and is current only as of the date of this report.
Rigorous legal and compliance analysis of our businesses and investments is important to our culture and risk management. We conduct regular training of our personnel regarding the laws and regulations governing our business and applicable to our clients as well as with our company's policies and procedures. In addition, we have adopted and implemented disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls over financial reporting, which have been documented, tested and assessed for design and operating effectiveness in compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 ("Sarbanes-Oxley Act"). We strive to maintain a culture of compliance through the use of policies and procedures such as oversight compliance, codes of conduct, compliance systems, communication of compliance guidance, conduct of annual compliance reviews and on-going employee education and training. Our corporate risk management function further analyzes our business, investment and other key risks, reinforcing their importance in our environment. We have a compliance group that monitors our compliance with all of the regulatory requirements to which we are subject and manages our compliance policies and procedures. Our General Counsel supervises our compliance group, which is responsible for addressing all regulatory and compliance matters that affect our activities. Our compliance policies and procedures address a variety of regulatory and compliance risks such as the handling of material non-public information, position reporting, personal securities trading, valuation of investments, document retention, potential conflicts of interest and the allocation of investment opportunities. Our compliance group also monitors the information barriers that we maintain between those of our different businesses that we are required to conduct separately or which present conflicts of interest, which we address through the use of physical and systematic information barriers. We believe that our various businesses' access to the intellectual capital, contacts and relationships benefit all of our businesses. However, in order to maximize that access without compromising our legal and contractual obligations, our compliance group oversees and monitors the communications between or among our different businesses to ensure that we maintain material non-public information, client information and other confidential information in strict confidence. All parts of our business from time to time are subject to regulatory exams, investigations and proceedings, and our broker-dealers have received fines and penalties for infractions of various regulations relating to our activities. For additional information regarding the regulatory and compliance risks that we face, see "Item 1A Risk Factors".
The investment advisers responsible for the Company's investment management businesses are all registered as investment advisers with the SEC or rely upon the registration of an affiliated adviser, and all are currently exempt from registration as Commodity Pool Operators and Commodity Trading Advisors.
Registered investment advisers are subject to the requirements of the Advisers Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder. Such requirements relate to, among other things, fiduciary duties to clients, maintaining an effective compliance program, operational and marketing requirements, disclosure obligations, conflicts of interest, fees and prohibitions on fraudulent activities.
The investment activities of our investment management businesses are also subject to regulation under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended ("the Investment Company Act") and various other statutes, as well as the laws of the fifty states and the rules of various United States and non-United States securities exchanges and self-regulatory organizations, including laws governing trading on inside information, market manipulation and a broad number of technical requirements (e.g., options and futures position limits, execution requirements and reporting obligations) and market regulation policies in the United States and globally. Congress, regulators, tax authorities and others continue to explore and implement regulations governing all aspects of the financial services industry. Pursuant to systemic risk reporting requirements adopted by the SEC, the Company's affiliated registered investment advisers with private investment fund clients are required to report certain information about their investment funds to the SEC.
In addition, certain of our investment advisers act as a "fiduciaries" under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 ("ERISA") and similar state laws with respect to private and public benefit plan clients. As such, the advisers, and certain of the investment funds they advise, may be subject to ERISA and similar state law requirements and to regulations promulgated thereunder. ERISA, similar state laws and applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (the "IRC"), which regulate services provided to individual retirement accounts, impose duties on persons who are fiduciaries and
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other types of service providers to benefit plans and individual retirement accounts under ERISA, such state laws and the IRC, prohibit specified transactions involving IRA and benefit plan clients subject to ERISA or similar state laws (absent the availability of specified exemptions) and provide monetary penalties for violations of these prohibitions.
Enacted on July 21, 2010, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the "Dodd-Frank Act") was expansive in scope and led to the adoption of extensive regulations by the CFTC, the prudential regulators, the SEC and other governmental agencies. The current administration has suggested that it will seek to roll back some of this regulation, although it is not possible to predict whether changes will be made. Since its adoption, the Dodd-Frank Act has had an impact on the costs associated with derivatives trading by the Company and its clients, including as a result of requirements that transactions be margined, trade reported and, in some cases, centrally cleared.
The Dodd-Frank Act established the Financial Services Oversight Council (the "FSOC") to identify threats to the financial stability of the United States, promote market discipline, and respond to emerging risks to the stability of the United States financial system. The FSOC is empowered to determine whether the material financial distress or failure of a non-bank financial company would threaten the stability of the United States financial system, and such a determination can subject a non-banking finance company to supervision by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve and the imposition of standards and supervision including stress tests, liquidity requirements and enhanced public disclosures including the authority to require the supervision and regulation of systemically significant non-bank financial companies. We do not believe we are at risk of being considered a systemically significant non-bank financial company.
The regulation of swaps and derivatives under the Dodd-Frank Act directly affects the manner by which our investment management businesses utilizes and trades swaps and other derivatives, and has generally increased the costs of derivatives trading conducted on behalf of our clients. The European Union ("E.U.") (and some other countries) are now in the process of implementing similar requirements that will affect derivatives transactions with a counterparty organized in that country or otherwise subject to that country's derivatives regulation. The mandatory minimum margin requirements for bilateral derivatives adopted by the U.S. government and the E.U. came into effect in March 2017 in respect to variation margin and will be transitioned in through 2020 in respect to initial margin. Required margining of derivatives has affected our investment management businesses as these requirements generally increase costs associated with derivatives transactions and makes derivatives transactions more expensive.
Given our investment and insurance activities are carried out around the globe, we are subject to a variety of regulatory regimes that vary country by country. Our captive insurance and reinsurance companies are regulated by both the New York State Department of Finance and the Luxembourg Commissariat aux Assurances, respectively. E.U. financial reforms included a number of initiatives to be reflected in new or updated directives and regulations, the most significant of which is the amendment to the pan-European regulatory regime, the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive ("MiFID II"), which went into effect in January 2018. MiFID II regulates the provision of investment services and activities throughout the European Economic Area. MiFID II requires that investment managers and investment advisers located in the E.U. "unbundle" research costs from commissions. As a result, investment firms subject to MiFID II may no longer pay for research using client commissions or "soft dollars." Going forward, such costs must be paid directly by the investment firm or through a research payment account funded by clients and governed by a budget that is agreed by the client. In the U.S., our investment management businesses expect to continue to pay for research using soft dollars consistent with applicable law. The change in regulations has also impacted the provisions of research by our U.S. broker-dealers. Because the acceptance of hard dollar payments would, under U.S. law, require registration as an investment adviser, our broker-dealers are requiring clients to continue to pay for research on a soft dollar basis unless the client is subject to MiFID II and we can rely on SEC relief so as not to have to register as an investment adviser.
Our businesses have operated for many years within a legal framework that requires us to be able to monitor and comply with a broad range of legal and regulatory developments that affect our activities both in the United States and abroad. As noted above, certain of our businesses are subject to compliance with laws and regulations of United States federal and state governments, foreign governments, their respective agencies and/or various self-regulatory organizations or exchanges relating to the privacy of client information, and any failure to comply with these regulations could expose us to liability and/or reputational damage. Additional legislation, changes in rules promulgated by the SEC, our other regulators and self-regulatory organizations or changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws and rules, either in the United States or elsewhere, may directly affect the mode of our operation and profitability. The United States and non-United States government agencies and self-regulatory organizations, as well as state securities commissions in the United States, are empowered to conduct administrative proceedings that can result in censure, fine, the issuance of cease-and-desist orders or the suspension or expulsion or deregulation of a broker-dealer, an investment advisor or its directors, officers or employees.
Cowen and Company, LLC ("Cowen and Company"), ATM Execution LLC ("ATM Execution"), Cowen Prime Services LLC ("Cowen Prime"), Cowen Execution Services LLC ("Cowen Execution") and Westminster Research Associates LLC ("Westminster") are registered as broker-dealers with the SEC and are members in good standing with FINRA. All broker-
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dealers are registered with various U.S states and territories except for ATM Execution. In addition to FINRA, some of these Cowen broker-dealers are also are members of other self-regulatory organizations, including various registered securities exchanges. Self-regulatory organizations adopt and enforce rules governing the conduct and activities of their member firms. Accordingly, Cowen and Company, ATM Execution, Cowen Prime, Cowen Execution and Westminster are subject to regulation and oversight by the SEC, the U.S states and territories in which they are registered, and FINRA and the other self-regulatory organizations of which they are members. Cowen Prime is also registered with the CFTC and is a member of the NFA and, consequently, is subject to regulation and oversight by them. Additionally, Cowen International Ltd and Cowen Execution Ltd are primarily regulated in the U.K. by the FCA and Cowen Asia is-registered with and subject to the financial resources requirements of the SFC of Hong Kong.
Broker-dealers are subject to regulations that cover all aspects of the securities business, including sales methods, trade practices among broker-dealers, use and safekeeping of customers' funds, conflicts of interest, securities and information, capital structure, research/banking interaction, record-keeping, the financing of customers' purchases and the conduct and qualifications of directors, officers and employees. In particular, as registered broker-dealers and members of various self-regulatory organizations, Cowen and Company, ATM Execution, Cowen Prime, Cowen Execution and Westminster are subject to the SEC's uniform net capital rule. Rule 15c3-1 specifies the minimum level of net capital a broker-dealer must maintain and also requires that a significant part of a broker-dealer's assets be kept in relatively liquid form. The SEC and various self-regulatory organizations impose rules that require notification when net capital falls below certain predefined criteria, limit the ratio of subordinated debt to equity in the regulatory capital composition of a broker-dealer and constrain the ability of a broker-dealer to expand its business under certain circumstances. Additionally, the SEC's uniform net capital rule requires us to give prior notice to the SEC for certain withdrawals of capital. As a result, our ability to withdraw capital from our broker-dealer subsidiaries may be limited.
The effort to combat money laundering and terrorist financing is a priority in governmental policy with respect to financial institutions. The Bank Secrecy Act ("BSA"), as amended by Title III of the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 and its implementing regulations ("Patriot Act"), requires broker-dealers and other financial services companies to maintain an anti-money laundering compliance program that includes written policies and procedures, designated compliance officer(s), appropriate training, independent review of the program, standards for verifying client identity at account opening and obligations to report suspicious activities and certain other financial transactions. Through these and other provisions, the BSA and Patriot Act seek to promote the identification of parties that may be involved in financing terrorism or money laundering. We must also comply with sanctions programs administered by the U.S. Department of Treasury's Office of Foreign Asset Control, which may include prohibitions on transactions with designated individuals and entities and with individuals and entities from certain countries.
Anti-money laundering laws of certain countries outside the United States contain similar diligence and verification provisions. The obligation of financial institutions, including ours, to identify their customers, watch for and report suspicious transactions, respond to requests for information by regulatory authorities and law enforcement agencies, and share information with other financial institutions, has required the implementation and maintenance of internal practices, procedures and controls that have increased, and may continue to increase, our costs. Any failure with respect to our programs in this area could subject us to serious regulatory consequences, including substantial fines, and potentially other liabilities.
Available Information
We routinely file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information required by the Exchange Act with the SEC. Our SEC filings also are available to the public from the SEC's internet site at http://www.se